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Los Angeles, CA 90012
The Growth of Compstat in American Policing [PDF]
Compstat and Organizational Change in the Lowell Police Department [PDF]
The following sections will link you to LAPD crime statistics for the City of Los Angeles. We have also included links to Web Sites containing information on crime trends throughout California and the United States.
COMPSTAT Policing in Los Angeles
A promising trend in significantly reducing violent crimes in the communities of Los Angeles is beginning to emerge. Although many may argue that there are many factors that directly effect any downturn in crime, one new factor, which was absent prior to Chief William Bratton's appointment to the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department, was the implementation of his crime control model known as COMPSTAT. COMPSTAT, short for computer statistics, has a well-established and proven track record in reducing crimes and improving the overall operating systems of several major metropolitan police departments. Police Departments such as New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Miami, New Orleans, and Newark, New Jersey have all experienced significant reduction in violent crimes as a result of the implementation of the COMPSTAT crime control model. Although many of these departments have custom tailored the COMPSTAT process to their own department and community needs, the core elements of COMPSTAT have remained the same. The core elements provide a basic road map of the getting police officers back in the business of actually proactively fighting crime rather than just reacting to it. A vital component of the COMPSTAT philosophy is its emphasis on holding police managers directly accountable for combating the crime in their assigned area and providing them the authority to deploy their resources to achieve the desired results.
The elements of COMPSTAT consist of four distinct principles:
Accurate and Timely Intelligence
Accurate and timely intelligence, or information is absolutely essential in effectively responding to any problem or crisis. Since today's policing techniques nearly always consist of vast amounts of information, it is necessary to provide a vehicle wherein essential information can easily and effectively be shared with all levels of the organization. Often times, detectives have information on suspects or crime trends and patterns but the actual field patrol officers who may be in contact with potential suspects have no idea of what information detective personnel possess or need to clear a case. Just as important, this principle also provides for an early warning system to identify emerging crime trends and patterns. In today's environment of ever shrinking resources, being able to apply the necessary resources to an identified problem area is crucial in successfully reducing crime. Historically, marked police vehicles have randomly been deployed in hopes of deterring potential criminals who see the black and white police vehicles on patrol. This principle suggests that the intelligence/information be used as a radar screen to direct police resources to the exact problem area.
Traditional policing tactics have always dictated that most problems may be solved at a superficial level. In other words, take care of the suspect and don't worry about the social or environmental situation that may be adding to or creating the problem. COMPSTAT tactics encourage "thinking outside the box" and mandates that every resource, both internal and external, are considered in responding to a problem. COMPSTAT tactics also provide for a sense of urgency in responding to problems. The old attitudes of public entities responding at slow speed are no longer acceptable. Every case or call for service is handled as the traditional "Big Case" and is thoroughly and rapidly investigated in a systematic manner.
For decades, police departments have been driven by calls for service and respond their limited resources in a reactive manner. With COMPSTAT, the police department is now armed with vital intelligence regarding emerging crime trends or patterns that allows for a strategic police response. The strategic response can be in many forms, both traditional uniformed or plainclothes officer response as well as non-traditional decoys and sting operations.
Relentless Follow-up and Assessment
An essential element in any crucial operation is the need to critically assess past tactics and review what was successfully employed and what just didn't work. One of the main differences between private enterprise and the public sector is the bottom line of positive returns. The public sector and police departments have rarely been evaluated on their results. On the other hand, if a business implements an unsuccessful strategy or provides an unacceptable level of customer service, it isn't long before bankruptcy is filed. The bottom line with COMPSTAT is results. Everything the police department does no matter whether administrative, operational or investigative in nature is evaluated by the results achieved. Static operations that do not provide for successful results are immediately assessed for their value and necessity to the overall operation of the department.
The COMPSTAT Division, under the direction of Police Administrator John Neuman, works to provide the statistical data and management information needed for the weekly COMPSTAT information sharing forum meetings chaired by Chief Beck and the Director, Office of Administrative Services Assistant Chief Michel Moore.
The review of the data presented and the performance of the command officers responsible for the existing crime issues assists those same officers in future decision making when creating new crime reduction strategies, allocating resources and deploying personnel in their assigned areas. Proven and successful strategies are identified and offered to other commands to assist them in addressing similar or overlapping crime problems in other areas of the City. The continuous COMPSTAT cycle of reviewing, strategizing, taking action and being held accountable for results has streamlined the Department's crime fighting abilities and increased it effectiveness in responding quickly to crime problems as evidenced by the current reduction in the overall occurrence of crime throughout the City of Los Angeles.